Cold chain cold storage logistics affects food safety and supply
Cold chain logistics is one of the important supports for transportation and food safety. Food cold chain logistics generally refers to a systematic project in which food is always in a prescribed low temperature environment from production, processing, storage, transportation, distribution, retail, to pre-consumption, in order to ensure food quality, reduce losses, and prevent pollution. Its scope includes primary agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, meat, poultry, eggs, aquatic products), processed foods (quick-frozen food, poultry, meat, aquatic products and other packaged cooked food, ice cream and dairy products, fast food raw materials), special commodities, and so on.
Cold chain logistics runs through the entire chain of the food industry and serves as a bridge for the effective connection of various nodes in the food industry. Beginning in the upstream breeding or planting bases, refrigerated warehouses (cold storage), production and processing bases, frozen and refrigerated food production and processing enterprises, etc.; throughout the midstream of the food industry, refrigerated warehouses, wholesale markets of origin and wholesale markets, distribution centers, etc. Intermediaries and suppliers, etc.; linking farmers' markets, supermarkets, retailers, restaurants, households, etc. downstream of the food industry.
The cold chain is closely related to the food industry. From the perspective of cold chain logistics customers, it can be divided into seven layers according to the pyramid type. The customers at the top of the tower are high value-added pharmaceuticals, catering chains, and fast-moving consumer goods, and cold chain logistics mostly adopts outsourcing; the middle is industrial products, processed dairy products, and quick-frozen rice and noodles, which is also the most competitive market for cold chain logistics. ; Then there are food-type poultry meat and aquatic products, and the bottom layer is fruits and vegetables, agricultural products, and the main form of transportation depends on social vehicles.
Cold chain cold storage has a profound impact on the development of agriculture and the food industry, and is vital to ensuring food safety and the quality of food ingredients.
For a long time, China’s fresh agricultural products have faced a series of serious problems such as an imperfect cold chain logistics system, high cost, low efficiency, and high loss.
According to the research data of Asia Tung Shing's supply chain, China consumes more than 1 billion tons of perishable food each year, of which more than 50% require cold chain transportation. However, the current comprehensive cold chain circulation rate is only 19%, while the cold chain flow in Europe and the United States can reach more than 95%. The annual loss of fruits and vegetables alone can reach more than 100 billion yuan.
Qin Yuming, secretary-general of the Cold Chain Logistics Committee of the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing, said that under the impetus of the 2008 Beijing Olympics, China has truly ushered in the rapid development of food cold chain logistics. During this period, China's cold storage capacity and the number of refrigerated trucks increased by leaps and bounds, but due to long-term historical debts, many problems were still exposed. The state-owned cold storage warehouses, the main body of China's refrigeration industry, were constructed earlier, and most of them have been used for more than 15 years. Limited by the conditions at the time, the cold storage engineering design standards were low, the equipment quality had many problems and the degree of automation was low, and most of them had entered the period of overhaul. Moreover, there is a serious shortage of refrigerated transport vehicles in the domestic distribution market. In export and import trade, there is also a shortage of refrigerators and corresponding transport vehicles.
The most prominent problem is the broken link.
In foreign countries, cold chain transportation is uninterrupted. However, in China, the food cold chain started late, investment is low, the entire industry is low in concentration, and the strength of the enterprise is weak, making it impossible to achieve the entire cold chain.
Even, most cold chain logistics belong to the state of chain disconnection. This not only leads to the high rate of corruption of fresh agricultural products and the inability to efficiently serve the huge food market, but also brings huge safety hazards to food companies and all sectors of society. At the same time, for companies, if food ingredients want to improve their bargaining power, they need to ensure that food ingredients maintain their freshness and taste to the greatest extent during the circulation process, which requires a whole cold chain guarantee system.
Cold chain infrastructure promotes new formats and models of the food industry
In recent years, favorable national policies have continuously injected new vitality into the development of the industry, and the cold chain infrastructure has become more and more perfect. According to incomplete statistics, in 2019, there were more than 40 policies related to agricultural agricultural products and cold chain logistics issued by the government at the government level, providing sufficient conditions for the development of fresh agricultural products e-commerce, and a new retail that integrates online and offline logistics. The model is becoming more and more prosperous.
On September 21, 2020, the General Office of the State Council formally issued the "Opinions on Leading the Accelerated Development of New Types of Consumption with New Business Forms and New Models", proposing to promote the two-way acceleration of online and offline integrated consumption, and accelerate the promotion of agricultural products "fresh e-commerce + cold chain home delivery" "And other new service models.
It can be seen that the development needs of China's cold chain logistics are gradually becoming mature.